LingfilSemitica tangentbordslayout (för svensk standard)

LingfilSemitica keyboard layout (non commercial version)


Quick install and test (Windows 7 and up)

Download LingfilSemitica and Keyman Desktop

 


av Bo Isaksson

 

 

 

 

 

Användarhandledning hur man skriver transkriptionstecken och IPA med LingfilSemitica (teckenstandard Unicode)

A manual for typing Unicode transcription signs and IPA with the LingfilSemitica keyboard layout

 

Denna webbsida är optimerad för teckensnittet Charis SIL. This page is read most easily with the Unicode font Charis SIL.

Innehåll / Contents

1. Snabbhandledning för en semitist / A Semitist’s quick companion. 4

2. Innan du börjar skriva / Before typing with LingfilSemitica. 6

2.1 Paketfilen LingfilSemitica.kmp / Contents of the package file. 6

2.2 Installation. 6

2.3 Rekommenderade inställningar i Keyman Desktop / Suggested configurations in Keyman Desktop  6

2.4 Teckensnittet Charis SIL / The font Charis SIL.. 7

3. Principer för LingfilSemitica / General properties of LingfilSemitica. 8

Om sammansatta tecken i unicode / A remark on combined characters in Unicode. 9

Version history. 10

4. LingfilSemitica teckentabell / LingfilSemitica character table. 10

Kommentar till tabellen / Remarks to the table. 46

Om ”stor bokstav” i tabellen. 46

5. Internationella fonetiska alfabetet 47

5.1 Pulmonisk-egressiva konsonanter (IPA) / Pulmonic consonants. 47

5.2 Icke-pulmoniska konsonanter (IPA) / Non-pulmonic. 48

5.3 Vokaler (IPA) / Vowels. 48

5.4 Diakritiska tecken (IPA) / Diacritics. 48

5.5 Andra IPA-symboler / Other IPA symbols. 49

5.6 Suprasegmentella symboler (IPA) / Suprasegmentals. 50

5.7 Tones and word accents (IPA) 50

Level 50

Contour 50

5.8 Andra fonetiska symboler / Other phonetic symbols. 51

5.9 Skriva IPA med LingfilSemitica / Key strokes for writing IPA.. 51

Bilabialer (IPA) / Bilabial 51

Labiodentaler (IPA) / Labiodental 52

Dentaler (IPA) / Dental 52

Alveolarer (IPA) / Alveolar 52

Postalveolarer (IPA) / Postalveolar 53

Palatoalveolarer (IPA) / Palato-alveolar 53

Retroflexer (IPA) / Retroflex. 54

Palataler (IPA) / Palatal 54

Velarer (IPA) / Velar 55

Uvularer (IPA) / Uvular 55

Faryngaler (IPA) / Pharyngeal 55

Glottaler (IPA) / Glottal 56

Epiglottaler (IPA) / Epiglottal 56

Vokaler: främre orundade / Vowels: Fronted unrounded. 56

Vokaler: främre rundade / Vowels: Fronted rounded. 56

Vokaler: mellan orundade / Vowels: Central unrounded. 57

Vokaler: mellan rundade / Vowels: Central rounded. 57

Vokaler: bakre orundade / Vowels: Back unrounded. 57

Vokaler: bakre rundade / Vowels: Back rounded. 57

6. Nasaliserad [tilde (◌̃)] (IPA) / Nasalized. 58

7. Velariserad-faryngaliserad [tilde ~] (IPA) / Velarized-pharyngealized / [Middle tilde] 58

8. Aspirerad [ʰ] (IPA) / Aspirated. 58

9. Pre-postnasaliserad [ⁿ] (IPA) / Pre-post nasalized. 59

10. Faryngaliserad [ˤ] (IPA) / Pharyngealized. 59

11. Labialiserad [ʷ](IPA) / Labialized. 59

12. Palataliserad [ʲ] (IPA) / Palatalized. 59

13. Lateraliserad [ˡ] (IPA) / Lateral release. 59

14. Tonande-tonlös  [Caron below (◌̬) – Ring (◌̥)] (IPA) / Voiced-voiceless. 60

1. Tonande [Caron below (◌̬)] / Voiced. 60

2. Tonlös [Ring (◌̊/◌̥)] / Voiceless. 60

15. Velariserad [ˠ] (IPA) / Velarized. 60

16. Dental/apical/laminal/linguo-labial (IPA) 60

17. Centralized/rounded/advanced/retracted/raised/ATR (IPA) 61

18. Syllabisk-ickesyllabisk-knarrande-rhotisk-ohörbar [◌̩/◌̯/◌̰/◌˞/◌̚] (IPA) / Syllabic-nonsyllabic-creaky-rhotic-unreleased. 61

19. Flåsuttal [ ̤ ] (IPA) / Breathy. 62

20. Affrikata [ ͡  ] (IPA) / Affricate. 62

21. Intonation [↘ and ↗] (IPA) / Intonation. 62

22. Descender 62

23. Krok / Hook. 62

24. Palatal krok (IPA) / Palatal hook. 62

25. Retroflex krok (IPA) / Retroflex hook. 63

26. Alveolopalatal Lock (IPA) / Curl 63

27. Markör för ejektiva (◌ʼ) (IPA) / Ejective mark. 63

28. Liten versal (IPA) / Small capital 63

29. Akut accent (◌́/◌̋) / Acute (◌́/◌̋) 64

30. Grav accent (◌̀/◌̏) / Grave (◌̀/◌̏) 64

31. Trema (◌̈/◌̤) / Diaeresis (◌̈/◌̤) 64

32. Macron/streck under  (◌̄/◌̱) Macron/stroke (bar)/line below.. 64

33. Breve (◌̆/◌̑/◌̯/◌̮) 65

34. Punkt under-över (◌̣/◌̇) / Dot below-above (◌̣/◌̇) 65

35. Caron-circumflex (◌̌/◌̂/◌̬/◌̭) 66

36. Upphöjd-nedsänkt / Modifier letter (superscript)-subscript 66

37. Cedilla-Ogonek (◌̧ /◌̨) 67

38. Komma under / Comma below.. 67

39. ”Bokstavsliknande” tecken / ”Letter-like” characters. 68

40. Rotera tecken / Turn (rotate) a character 68

41. Spegelvänd tecken / Reverse a character 69

42. Invertera tecken / Invert a character 69

43. Horn. 69

44. Grav-akut efter bokstav / Grave-acute after base character 69

45. Snedstreck / Stroke (diagonal) 70

46. Krok över / Hook above. 70

47. Bokstav över / Letter above. 70

48. Digraf (ligature) / Digraph (ligature) 70

49. Asterisk below.. 71

50. Redaktionella tecken / Editorial signs. 71

51. Matematiska symboler / Mathematical symbols. 74

 

1.Snabbhandledning för en semitist / A Semitist’s quick companion

För fler transkriptionstecken se LingfilSemitica teckentabell. For more signs see the LingfilSemitica sign table.

 

small

versal / cap

tangenter | key strokes

genväg | shortcut

Unicode description

ʾ

Alt-’,’

 

modifier letter right half ring (glottal stop; arabic letter hamza; hebrew ʾālæf)

ʿ

Alt-’.’

 

modifier letter left half ring (voiced pharyngeal fricative; arabic letter ʿayn; hebrew ʿayin)

ʔ

Shift-Alt-’,’

 

latin letter glottal stop (arabic hamza; hebrew ʾālæf)

ʕ

Shift-Alt-’.’

latin letter pharyngeal voiced fricative (arabic ʿayn; hebrew ʿayin)

ā

Ā

a+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’a’

latin letter a with macron

æ

Æ

ae+Ctrl-’2’

Alt-’ä’

latin letter ae (digraph)

ǣ

Ǣ

Alt-’ä’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter ae with macron

b+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter b with line below

ƀ

b+Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter b with stroke

d+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter d with line below

đ

Đ

d+Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter d with stroke

d+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’d’

latin letter d with dot below

ḏ̣

Ḏ̣

d+Ctrl-’-.’

 

latin letter d with line below and combining dot below

ē

Ē

e+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’e’

latin letter e with macron

ə

Ə

Alt-’e’

latin letter schwa

Alt-’e’+’§’

 

modifier letter small schwa

g+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter g with macron

ġ

Ġ

g+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’g’

latin letter g with dot above

ǧ

Ǧ

g+’◌̂’

Alt-’g’

latin letter g with caron

h+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’h’

latin letter h with dot below

h+Shift-Ctrl-’-’

Alt-’h’

latin letter h with breve below

ī

Ī

i+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’i’

latin letter i with macron

k+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter k with line below

k+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter k with dot below

ō

Ō

o+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’o’

latin letter o with macron

p+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter p with macron

ś

Ś

s+’◌́’

 

latin letter s with acute

s+’◌̀’

 

latin letter s with grave

s+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’s’

latin letter s with dot below

š

Š

s+’◌̂’

Alt-’s’

latin letter s with caron

s+’1§’

 

latin letter s with superscript one

s+’2§’

 

latin letter s with superscript two

s+’3§’

 

latin letter s with superscript three

s₁

S₁

s+’1§§’

 

latin letter s with subscript one

s₂

S₂

s+’2§§’

 

latin letter s with subscript two

s₃

S₃

s+’3§§’

 

latin letter s with subscript three

t+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter t with line below

t+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’t’

latin letter t with dot below

ṯ̣

Ṯ̣

t+Ctrl-’-.’ / t+Ctrl-’.-’

 

latin letter t with line below and combining dot below

ū

Ū

u+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’u’

latin letter u with macron

z+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’z’

latin letter z with dot below

 

2.Innan du börjar skriva / Before typing with LingfilSemitica

2.1 Paketfilen LingfilSemitica.kmp / Contents of the package file

LingfilSemitica.kmx

tangentbordslayouten LingfilSemitica/ the keyboard layout LingfilSemitica

LingfilSemitica.kvk

tablå över tangenternas placering (visar de tecken som är tillgängliga genom en enda samtidig tryckning av en eller flera tangenter)/ on-screen keyboard for Keyman Desktop (shows those characters that are available by one single touch of one or several keys)

readme.htm

första info om installation/first info on installation

readme-sw.htm

första info om installation (på Svenska)/first info on installation (in Swedish)

welcome.htm

den här filen / the present file

LingfilSemitica.ico

ikon som visas i Windows aktivitetsfält när LingfilSemitica är aktiverat (Sm)/icon shown in Windows taskbar notification area when LingfilSemitica is active (Sm)

2.2 Installation

Först måste programmet Keyman Desktop vara installerat i datorn. Dubbelklicka på filen LingfilSemitica.kmp. Då installeras 1) tangentbords­layouten LingfilSemitica, 2) ”on-screen keyboard” (som visar vad tangenterna betyder), 3) ikonen (Sm) som visar när LingfilSemitica är inkopplat.

The program Keyman Desktop must be preinstalled on your computer. Double-click on LingfilSemitica.kmp. The new keyboard layout will be installed in Keyman Desktop as well as the on-screen keyboard, and the icon (Sm) that shows up when LingfilSemitica is active.

2.3 Rekommenderade inställningar i Keyman Desktop / Suggested configurations in Keyman Desktop

Rekommenderade inställningar i Keyman Desktop (anges av användaren i ”configuration”) / Suggested configurations in Keyman Desktop (to be assigned in ”configuration”).

a) Snabbkommandon / Short-cuts

Shift-Ctrl-K: Aktivera LingfilSemitica tangentbordslayout/activate LingfilSemitica keyboard layout

Shift-Ctrl-L: Stäng av Keyman Desktop/inactivate Keyman Desktop

b) Tips för ”Languages” i ”Configuration”: koppla LingfilSemitica till Windowsspråken Svenska och Engelska och andra språk med latinska alfabeten som du skriver reguljärt i. Då blir LingfilSemitica automatiskt aktiverat vid vanligt skrivande (inklusive transkription), men kopplas bort när du skriver text med andra alfabeten som arabiska eller hebreiska.

Recommendation for ”Languages” in ”Configuration”: assign LingfilSemitica to the Windows languages Swedish and English and other Latin-based languages. This means that LingfilSemitica is activated in all normal writing including transcription, but is inactivated when writing text with other alphabets like Arabic or Hebrew.

2.4 Teckensnittet Charis SIL / The font Charis SIL

LingfilSemitica har skapats och testats med utgångspunkt i teckenresurserna i Charis SIL från SIL International. Charis SIL är ett utmärkt transkriptionsteckensnitt som lämpar sig väl även för allmänt bruk. Samtliga tecken som beskrivs i denna manual finns i Charis SIL. De senaste versionerna av Times New Roman och Arial (från v. 5.0) lämpar sig också väl för transkription och innehåller de flesta transkriptionstecknen i Charis SIL.

LingfilSemitica has been created and tested with the resources of Charis SIL in mind. Charis SIL from SIL International is an excellent transcription font that is also well suited for general writing. All the characters described in the present user’s manual are available in Charis SIL. The latest versions of Times New Roman or Arial (v. 5.0 and above) are also suitable for transcription purposes and contain most of the transcription characters in Charis SIL.

 

Charis SIL skapar som standard ett något större radavstånd än exempelvis Times New Roman. Om ett kompakt radavstånd är viktigt kan detta åstadkommas genom att ange ett exakt radavstånd i Word: / Charis SIL requires by default a somewhat looser line spacing than e.g. Times New Roman. If this is a critical issue, the user should set line spacing in Word to an exact value:

“Our SIL Unicode Roman fonts include characters with multiple stacked diacritics that need a much looser line spacing (for example, U+1EA8 ). We cannot make the line spacing tighter without experiencing “clipping” of those characters. You may be able to overcome this by adjusting the line spacing in the application. For example, in Microsoft Word select Format / Paragraph and set the line spacing to use the Exactly setting and a value more suited to your needs. For example, if the font size is 12 pt, select line spacing of Exactly 13 pt. This will give a tighter line spacing. You can adjust the value up or down depending on how many diacritics you need to stack. With HTML you should also be able to change the line spacing; add the line-height property to your tag (“line-height:105%;” or “line-height: 12pt;”) and play around with the value until you get the spacing desired.” (SIL).

3.Principer för LingfilSemitica / General properties of LingfilSemitica

A. Tangentbordslayouten ansluter till det svenska (fysiska) tangentbordet. LingfilSemitica keyboard layout is specifically made for the national standard Swedish (hardware) keyboard. It is possible to use it with other national keyboards as well, but some keys will then be positioned differently.

B. LingfilSemitica tangentbordslayout är gjort för reguljärt skrivande, inte bara för transkription. Samtliga tangenter på ett svenskt tangentbord fungerar i största utsträckning som tecknen på tangenterna anger även när LingfilSemitica är aktiverad. ’åäöÅÄÖ’ nås t. ex. med de vanliga åäö-tangenterna. Stora ansträngningar har gjorts för att det svenska tangentbordet ska fungera ”normalt” med LingfilSemitica inkopplat. Apostrof skrivs t.ex. med tangenten märkt ’'’, akut accent skrivs med tangenten märkt ’ ́’, etc. Det är med särskilda kombinationer (t.ex. med Ctrl-och Alt) som speciella tecken skapas.

LingfilSemitica keyboard layout is made for regular writing, not only for transcription signs. All keys on the Swedish national standard (hardware) keyboard function as ”normal” with LingfilSemitica (you type åäöÅÄÖ with the usual åäö-keys). The special characters are achieved with specific key combinations (as with Ctrl-and Alt-keys).

 

Undantag från svensk tangentbordsstandard/exceptions from the Swedish keyboard standard:

1. Accenter etc. (s.k. diakritica) skrivs efter basbokstaven och inte före. / Accents etc. (diacritics) are written after the base character, not before it.

2. Eurotecknet (€) nås genom Alt-’5’ / The Euro sign (€) is typed by Alt-ʼ5ʼ.

 

C. Sammansatta tecken skrivs genom att börja med basbokstaven, sedan lägga till diakritica. Complex characters are shaped by first typing the base character, then adding the diacritics.

D. De flesta diakritiska tangenter (accenter etc.) är ”strömbrytare” eller ”loopar”: tryck en gång till så återkommer basbokstaven eller så ändras det diakritiska tecknet till ett annat tilläggstecken. Upprepa tryckningen tills basbokstaven återkommer, då har alla varianter uttömts. Most diacritic keys are ”toggles” or ”loops”: type it once again and the base character returns or the diacritic is changed in another way. You exhaust all variants by repeated typing of the accent key until the base character returns without diacritic.

Ex. 1: á skrivs genom att först skriva ’a’, sedan trycka ned akut-tangenten: steg 1: ’a’; steg 2: ’◌́’. Resultat: á [acute accent]. You write á by first typing ʼaʼ and then the acute key: Step 1: ʼaʼ, step 2: ʼ◌́ʼ; result: á [acute accent].

Ex. 2: ǧ = g+’◌̂’. Shift-’◌̈’ växlar mellan ◌̌ och ◌̂ över och även under basbokstaven [caron/circumflex]. Shift-ʼ◌̈ʼ toggles between ◌̌ and ◌̂ above and also under the base character) [caron/circumflex].

Ex. 3: â = a+’◌̂’ [caron/circumflex].

Ex. 4: ḓ = d+’◌̂’+’◌̂’+’◌̂’ [caron/circumflex].

Ex. 5: ś = s+’◌́’ [acute accent].

Ex. 6: ã = a+’◌̃’ [’a’+LAlt-’◌̃’] [tilde].

Ex. 7: ñ = n+’◌̃’ [’n’+LAlt-’◌̃’] [tilde].

Ex. 8: = n+’◌̴’ [’n’+RAlt-’◌̴’] [middle tilde].

Ex. 9: = b+’◌̴’ [’b’+RAlt-’◌̴’] [middle tilde].

Ex. 10: ë = e+’◌̈’ [trema/diaeresis].

E. Diakritiska tecken kan ofta kombineras. Diacritics can often be combined.

Ex.: ầ = a+’◌̂’ +’◌̀’ (see below) eller/or a+’◌̀’+’◌̂’+’◌̂’.

Sammansatta tecken i unicode / Combined characters in Unicode

Unicodestandardens uppsättning av unika separata tecken har utnyttjats i LingfilSemitica. Sammansatta tecken har använts endast när ett motsvarande unikt tecken inte funnits att tillgå i Unicode. Exempel: ḗ finns som ett enda tecken i Unicode och nås från LingfilSemitica genom att trycka ’e’ + Shift-’-’ + ’´’. Däremot finns inte ā́ som ett enda tecken i Unicode. Det ’ā́’ som fås genom att trycka ’a’ + Shift-’-’ + ’´’ är därför tekniskt sett ”sammansatt” av ’ā’ + ’´’. Skillnaden kan ha stor betydelse i program som har svårt att hantera sammansatta tecken, som t.ex. Powerpoint (upp till 2003). Användaren kan testa om ett tecken är sammansatt genom att placera markören direkt efter tecknet och trycka på BACKSPACE. Ett unikt tecken suddas ut med en enda tryckning, medan ett sammansatt försvinner stegvis, ”del för del” (vid ā́ försvinner först accenten, sedan ā).

The unicode set of unique separate characters has been fully utilized in LingfilSemitica. Combined characters (two separate signs into one shape) are formed only when a corresponding unique character does not exist in the unicode standard. Example: ḗ exists as one character in Unicode and is achieved with LingfilSemitica by typing ’e’ + Shift-’-’ + ’´’. In contrast, ā́ as one sign does not exist in Unicode. The ’ā́’ that is achieved by typing ’a’ + Shift-’-’ + ’´’ is technically speaking ”combined” by ’ā’ + ’´’. The difference is important in software programs that show difficulties handling combined characters, like Powerpoint 2003. The user can test whether a character is ”combined” or not by placing the cursor directly after the character in Word and press BACKSPACE. A unique character will be deleted in one step, but a combined character is deleted step by step (in case of ā́ the accent is deleted first, then the ā).

Version history

Most recent version of LingfilSemitica (non commercial version): 3.6.0.

New from v. 3.0: macron moved to Ctrl-’-’, breve moved to Shift-Ctrl-’-’; 3.1: IPA; 3.2: dot moved to Ctrl-’.’; 3.2.23: updated to Unicode 5.1; 3.3: digraph; 3.4: descender; 3.5: invert; 3.6: circumflex modified for vowels.

4.LingfilSemitica teckentabell / LingfilSemitica character table

Se kommentar efter tabellen. / See remarks after the table.

 

A Æ B C D E Ə Ɛ F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S ʃ T U V W X Y Z Ʒ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Roman Numerals Fractions

(furtherh links: IPA symbols, Editorial symbols, Mathematical symbols)

 

small

versal / cap

tangenter | key strokes

genväg | shortcut

Unicode description

ʾ

Alt-’,’

 

modifier letter right half ring (glottal stop; arabic letter hamza; hebrew ʾālæf)

ʿ

Alt-’.’

 

modifier letter left half ring (voiced pharyngeal fricative; arabic letter ʿayn; hebrew ʿayin)

ʔ

Shift-Alt-’,’

 

latin letter glottal stop (arabic hamza; hebrew ʾālæf)

ʕ

ʔ+Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’+’

Shift-Alt-’.’

latin letter pharyngeal voiced fricative (arabic ʿayn; hebrew ʿayin) (latin letter reversed glottal stop)

ɂ

Shift-Alt-’,’+Ctrl-’+++’

 

latin small letter glottal stop

Ɂ

Shift-Alt-’,’+Ctrl-’++’

 

latin capital letter glottal stop

ˀ

Shift-Ctrl-’,’+’§’

 

modifier letter glottal stop

ʡ

Shift-Alt-’,’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter glottal stop with stroke

ˤ

Shift-Alt-’.’+’§’

 

modifier letter small reversed glottal stop

ʢ

Shift-Alt-’.’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter reversed glottal stop with stroke

ʖ

Shift-Alt-’,’+Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’§’

 

latin letter inverted glottal stop

ƾ

Shift-Alt-’,’+Ctrl-’-’+ Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’§’ or ʖ+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter inverted glottal stop with stroke

ʾ/ʔ+Ctrl-’+’

 

latin letter saltillo (letterlike)

a

A

 

á

Á

a+’◌́’

 

latin letter a with acute

à

À

a+’◌̀’

 

latin letter a with grave

ā

Ā

a+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’a’

latin letter a with macron

a+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter a with dot below

ȧ

Ȧ

a+Ctrl-’..’

 

latin letter a with dot above

â

Â

a+’◌̂’

 

latin letter a with circumflex

ǎ

Ǎ

a+’◌̂◌̂’

 

latin letter a with caron

a+’§’

 

modifier letter a

a+’§§’

 

latin subscript small letter a

ă

Ă

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter a with breve

ȃ

Ȃ

a+Shift-Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter a with inverted breve

ä

Ä

a+’◌̈’

ä

latin letter a with diaeresis

ã

Ã

a+LAlt-◌̃

 

latin letter a with tilde

ą

Ą

a+LAlt-’'’+LAlt-’'’

 

latin letter a with ogonek

Ⱥ

a+Ctrl-’/’

latin letter a with stroke

å

Å

a+Alt-’o’

å

latin letter a with ring above

a+Alt-’oo’

 

latin letter a with ring below

A+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital a

ȁ

Ȁ

a+’◌̀◌̀’

 

latin letter a with double grave

a+LAlt-’33’

 

latin letter a with retroflex hook

a+Shift-Alt-’?’

latin letter a with hook above

a+Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’*’

 

latin letter a with combining asterisk below

ɐ

a+Shift-Ctrl-’+’

 

latin small letter turned a

a+Shift-Ctrl-’+’+’§’ or +Shift-Ctrl-’+’

 

modifier letter turned a

ā́

Ā́

a+Ctrl-’-’+’◌́’ or á+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter a with macron and acute

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+’◌́’

 

latin letter a with breve and acute

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+’◌̀’

 

latin letter a with breve and grave

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+Shift-Alt-’?’

 

latin letter a with breve and hook above

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+LAlt-◌̃

 

latin letter a with breve and tilde

a+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter a with breve and dot below

a+’◌̂◌̂’+’◌́’

 

latin letter a with circumflex and acute

a+’◌̂◌̂’+’◌̀’

 

latin letter a with circumflex and grave

a+’◌̂◌̂’+Shift-Alt-’?’

 

latin letter a with circumflex and hook above

a+’◌̂◌̂’+LAlt-◌̃

 

latin letter a with circumflex and tilde

a+’◌̂◌̂’+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter a with circumflex and dot below

ạ̄

Ạ̄

a+Ctrl-’-’+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter a with macron and dot below

ǡ

Ǡ

a+Ctrl-’..’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter a with dot above and macron

ª

a+’§’+Ctrl-’-’

 

feminine ordinal indicator (macron)

@

Alt-’2’

commercial at

a+Ctrl-’++++++++++’

 

latin small letter a with right half ring (letterlike)

ǻ

Ǻ

å+’◌́’

 

latin letter a with ring above and acute

å

Å

(use Word’s superscript)

 

å superscript

ǟ

Ǟ

ä+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter a with diaeresis and macron

ᵃ̈

ᴬ̈

a+’§’+’◌̈’

 

modifier letter a with diaeresis

ɑ

a+Ctrl-’+++’

 

latin letter alpha (letterlike)

a+Ctrl-’+++’+’§’

 

modifier letter small alpha

a+Ctrl-’+++’+LAlt-’33’

 

latin small letter alpha with retroflex hook

ɒ

a+Ctrl-’+++’+Shift-Ctrl-’+’

a+Ctrl-’++++’

latin letter turned alpha

a+Ctrl-’+++’+Shift-Ctrl-’+’+’§’

 

modifier letter small turned alpha

α

a+Ctrl-’+’

 

greek small letter alpha (letterlike)

A+Ctrl-’++++++’

 

latin letter ain (letterlike)

ᴥ+’§’

 

modifier letter small ain

A+Ctrl-’--’

 

austral sign (stroke)

æ

Æ

 

æ

Æ

ae+Ctrl-’2’

Alt-’ä’

latin letter ae (digraph)

ǽ

Ǽ

Alt-’ä’+’◌́’

 

latin letter ae with acute

ǣ

Ǣ

Alt-’ä’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter ae with macron

æ̂

Æ̂

Alt-’ä’+’◌̂’

 

latin letter ae with combining circumflex

Alt-’ä’+’§’

 

modifier letter ae [not a valid Unicode character]

æ̆

Æ̆

Alt-’ä’+Shift-Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter ae with combining breve

Alt-’Ä’+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital ae

Alt-’ä’+Shift-Ctrl-’+’

 

latin small letter turned ae

Alt-’ä’+Shift-Ctrl-’+’+’§’

 

modifier letter small turned ae [not supported by Unicode]

ǣ́

Ǣ́

Alt-’ä’+Ctrl-’-’+’◌́’ / ǽ+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter ae with macron and combining acute

æ̆́

Æ̆́

Alt-’ä’+Shift-Ctrl-’-’+’◌́’

 

latin letter ae with combining breve and combining acute

b

B

 

b+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter b with line below

ƀ

b+Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter b with stroke

b+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter b with dot below

b+Ctrl-’..’

 

latin letter b with dot above

b+’§’

 

modifier letter b

b+RAlt-’~’

latin letter b with middle tilde

ʙ

B+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital b

ɓ

Ɓ

b+LAlt-’55’

 

latin letter b with hook

b+LAlt-’44’

 

latin small letter b with palatal hook

ƃ

Ƃ

b+Ctrl-’+++’

 

latin letter b with topbar (letterlike)

B+Ctrl-’<’+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter small capital barred b

B+Ctrl-’<’+Ctrl-’-’+’§’

 

modifier letter capital barred b

β

b+Ctrl-’+’

 

greek small letter beta (letterlike)

b+Ctrl-’+’+’§’

 

modifier letter small beta

b+Ctrl-’+’+’§§’

 

greek subscript small letter beta

c

C

 

ć

Ć

c+’◌́’

 

latin letter c with acute

ċ

Ċ

c+Ctrl-’..’

 

latin letter c with dot above

č

Č

c+’◌̂’

Alt-’c’

latin letter c with caron

ĉ

Ĉ

c+’◌̂◌̂’

 

latin letter c with circumflex

c+’§’

 

modifier letter small c

ç

Ç

c+LAlt-’'’

 

latin letter c with cedilla

ȼ

Ȼ

c+Ctrl-’/’

latin letter c with stroke

C+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital c

ƈ

Ƈ

c+LAlt-’55’

 

latin letter c with hook

c+LAlt-’44’

 

latin small letter c with palatal hook [not supported by Unicode]

ɕ

c+LAlt-’22’

 

latin letter c with curl

C+Ctrl-’<’+Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’+’ or C+ Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’+’Ɔ+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital open o (reversed)

c+LAlt-’'’+’◌́’

 

latin letter c with cedilla and acute

c+LAlt-’22’+’§’

 

modifier letter small c with curl

ɔ

Ɔ

c+Shift-Ctrl-’+’

 

latin letter open o (turned c)

c+Shift-Ctrl-Alt-’+’

 

latin small letter reversed c

c+Shift-Ctrl-’++’

 

latin small letter sideways open o (turned c)

c+Shift-Ctrl-’+’+’§’

 

modifier letter small open o

c+Shift-Ctrl-’+’+LAlt-’33’

 

latin small letter open o with retroflex hook

ʗ

C+Ctrl-’+++’

 

latin letter stretched C (letterlike)

¢

C+Ctrl-’++++’

 

cent sign (letterlike)

C+Ctrl-’+++++++’

 

cedi sign (letterlike)

©

(c) or ’(C)’

copyright sign

C+Ctrl-’//’

colon sign (stroke)

CE+Ctrl-’2’

euro-currency sign (digraph)

Cr+Ctrl-’2’

cruzeiro sign (digraph)

d

D

 

d+Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter d with line below

đ

Đ

d+Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter d with stroke

ð

Ð

d+Ctrl-’++’

Alt-’d’

latin letter eth (letterlike)

d+Ctrl-’.’

Shift-Ctrl-’d’

latin letter d with dot below

d+Ctrl-’..’

 

latin letter d with dot above

ḏ̣

Ḏ̣

d+Ctrl-’-.’

 

latin letter d with line below and combining dot below

d+Ctrl-’---’

 

dong sign (macron)

ď

Ď

d+’◌̂’

 

latin letter d with caron

d+’◌̂◌̂◌̂◌̂’

 

latin letter d with circumflex below

d+’§’

 

modifier letter d

d+Ctrl-’,’ or d+Alt-’'’

 

latin letter d with cedilla

d+RAlt-’~’

 

latin small letter d with middle tilde

D+Ctrl-’<’

 

latin letter small capital d

Alt-’d’+’§’

 

modifier letter small eth

ƌ

Ƌ

d+Ctrl-’+++’

 

latin letter d with topbar (letterlike)

ɗ

Ɗ

d+LAlt-’55’

 

latin letter d with hook

d+LAlt-’44’

 

latin small letter d with palatal hook

ȡ

d+LAlt-’22’

 

latin small letter d with curl

ɖ

d+Ctrl-’++++’

 

latin small letter d with tail (letterlike)

d+Ctrl-’++++++’

 

latin small letter d with hook and tail (letterlike)

ȸ

db+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin small letter db digraph

ʣ

dz+Ctrl-’22’

 

latin small letter dz digraph

dz

DZ

dz+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin small letter dz (digraph)

Dz

Dz+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin captial letter D with small letter z (digraph)

Dž

D+z+’◌̂’+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin capital letter D with small letter z with caron (digraph)

dž

DŽ

d+z+’◌̂’+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin letter dz with caron (digraph)

ʤ

d+z+Ctrl-’+’+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin small letter dezh digraph

ʥ

d+z+LAlt-’22’+Ctrl-’2’

 

latin small letter dz digraph with curl

Dr+Ctrl-’2’

 

drachma sign (digraph)

δ

Δ

d+Ctrl-’+’

 

greek letter delta (letterlike)

d+Ctrl-’+’+’§’

 

modifier letter small delta

ƍ

d+Ctrl-’+’+Shift-Ctrl-’+’

 

latin small letter turned delta

e

E

 

é

É

e+’◌́’

 

latin letter e with acute

è

È

e+’◌̀’

 

latin letter e with grave

ē

Ē

e+Ctrl-’-’

Shift-Ctrl-’e’

latin letter e with macron

e+Ctrl-’.’

 

latin letter e with dot below

ė

Ė

e+Ctrl-’..’

 

latin letter e with dot above

ê

Ê

e+’◌̂’

 

latin letter e with circumflex

ě

Ě

e+’◌̂◌̂’

 

latin letter e with caron

e+’◌̂◌̂◌̂◌̂’

 

latin letter e with circumflex below

e+’§’

 

modifier letter e

e+’§§’

 

latin subscript small letter e

ĕ

Ĕ

e+Shift-Ctrl-’-’

 

latin letter e with breve

ȇ

Ȇ

e+Shift-Ctrl-’--’

 

latin letter e with inverted breve

ȩ

Ȩ

e+LAlt-’'’

 

latin letter e with cedilla

e+Ctrl-’,’